501. My father departed from Vietnam as the Deputy Senior Division Advisor in July 1970 while COL Hayes departed some time before him. Regardless, my father does not recall this sentiment or statements of this nature being made by BG McAuliffe about your brother or the quality of the 5th Infantry Division (ARVN). I know my father held your brother in very high esteem and would agree with the comments made by COL Hayes in his report that you've quoted in paragraph 12 [of the American Embassy] .
My Dad was a little surprised at hearing about paragraph 13 [of the American Embassy] as that did not appear to be the prevailing attitude of the Americans toward your brother or the 5th Division while my Dad was there. In his talks with me, I know he respected and felt a comradeship with the South Vietnamese Soldier. Bob Lott
502. My name is Ryan Nelson and I am a UW-Madison grad student of Southeast Asian Studies with an emphasis on Vietnamese history and traditional culture. For my thesis I am writing about the political life and tragic death of the civilian politician Tran Van Van. As part of my paper, I am dissecting the state of secularization between Van and Gen. Nguyen Cao Ky and Van and Ky's respective inner circles from 1965 until Van's assassination in late-1966. Through contact with Van's eldest son, Tran Van Tong, I have been able to identify and collect background information on the members of Van's inner civilian circle. Finding background information about Ky's inner military circle, however, has been more elusive. I am particularly interested in date of birth, region of birth, and academic background. Much of what I already know comes from your website and Tran Van Ngo, Nguyen Huynh, Nguyen Van Toan, and Le Trung Hieu, (eds.). Who's Who In Vietnam. (Saigon: Vietnam Press, 1974). (Ryan Nelson) 503. Allow me to introduce myself. I am Angie Hoquang. I have perused researched documents about high ranking officers serving in the ARVN. I sincerely admire this endeavor. My father is Colonel Ho Quang Nguyen, MD serving at the Medical Bureau as Chief of Personnel Training. He currently resides in Dallas, Texas. I would like to contribute to your research project. (Angie Hoquang)
504. My respects to you. (Martin Rivera, G SFC USARMY)
505. I have read/studied the entire webpage and again must say very impressive! Well done in every respect! You have provided me the favor of seeing Vietnam War from a "different perspective". (Alvie, 3rd Bde TF, 1965-66)
506. I am working Pleime/Iadrang into Sword of Damocles, the upcoming installment of The Bangkok Dinner Party. I am using your website a lot to keep my mind straight on history. Truly, Tin, your work is a godsend! (James Michener)
507. My name is Michael Dineen and I'm an American. I wanted to say thank you for creating such an informative web site about General Hieu. I am an amateur historian on the Vietnam War but have read over 500 books on the subject. I really like all the information you have compiled on the battles in the Ia Drang.The material is priceless. I would love to be able to talk with you some time about all this stuff. And you are correct about the ARVN units not getting enough credit for their participation in the Ia Drang battles and Operation Than Phong 7. The ARVN part of the battle was equally important to the outcome and their intelligence was incredible. Anyhow thank you very much. If you have any other links please send them. (Michael Dineen)
508. Hi, uncle Tin. Yesterday, after getting the address of the website, I went in and found a wealth of interesting information that emerged me into a lengthy reading. I was at awe. To be honest, I am aware of those historical documents only today. My dad, when he was alive, did not dare to talk much about our relatives due to sensitivity, resulting in us having a fuzzy knowledge of our relatives. I thank you for your dedication in creating this site so that our younger generation knows about these pages of history. I also saw the name of my grandfather, Do Duc Du, is mentioned in the memoir of grand-uncle Huong. My dad recounted to us that our grandfather traveled all over as a merchant. My grand-parents died when I was not yet born and I only heard about it superficially. >(Your niece Binh)
509. I have been reading your website about GEN Hieu. I served with Major Sung at Xuan Loc in 72. I did not serve with your brother. I saw him once in the spring of 72. He had come to Xuan Loc City to see the province chief. He, then, came to Xuan Loc District to visit Major Sung. I saw him from a distance. He struck me as a proud, capable general officer. I was told then that he and Sung were close friends. I did not learn that he was such an incorruptible man. Sung also was that way. By chance, do you have Major Sung's full name? I would like to continue my search for him. My Major Cherup died several years ago. I know he and Sung got close, too. I am continuing to read your website. Much information there. (Howell Miller)
510. Although I had never entered the army, my father was an officer with the rank of major; he died after a severe illness in 1968 at the age of 45 and I had gone to the USA for studies just three years which left me unfulfilled in filial duty. As a consequence I understand your sadness in general Hieuís case, a brother in your family who is to be admired and a hero to be recognized by the Vietnamese and whose mysterious death should be clarified and his assassins should be identified. Because I also do not believe he committed suicide, abandoning his fellow combatants, his wife and his young children because his time had not reach the point similar to general Le Nguyen Vy and the other generals who gave their lives for the country on the national sorrow day of April 4, 1975. (Nguyen Ngoc Bao)
511. General Hieu is a military genius and a genuine patriot. He is a strategist and tactician with many excellent schemes. American advisors all respected him because his intellectual knowledge was rarely seen among the Vietnamese generals, and also because of his general staff and troop maneuver skills. That was the reason they adopted without hesitation all his recommendations. His way of conducting wars was very sophisticated, something rare among Vietnamese officers and generals; he is indeed an ARVN gem. I think General Hieu and the American advisor recommended me for the 'US Commedation Medal Valor' in the Snoul battle. It took 5 months for the US Defense Department to make it official on 11/1/1971. (Tran Van Thuong)
512. I inadvertently came across a page mentioning my grandfather Lieutenant Colonel Vu Manh Cuong, Ranger. I am very glad because I always want to know more about my grandfather who died in the reeducation camp. I hope you can provide me more information about him and pictures of him in the past, he whom I revere much although I have never met him. Thank you. (Thuy Anh)
513. In the process of doing some research on the topic, I used your data to generate an excel file containing your generals list(1) data combined with list (2) data. I tried to make it as error free as possible. No guarantees. I also added some calculated columns that I found useful, for example long rank and anglicized names. On the off chance that it might be of use to you, I have attached it. I have no intention of distributing it further myself, but please feel free to do with it as you please. I would love to link it to the appropriate Wikipedia pages, but I've yet to figure out how yet.
By the way, Incredible how many of the pictures you have in the colonels list. Those could not have been easy to collect. (C Becket)
514. I am an historian of China and more precisely of Shanghai and the French concession. I currently prepare a book on the police of the French concession and more precisely its tonkinese forces, in the framework of my research at the Institut díAsie Orientale.
Your father, following his stay in Tianjin was hired at the police of the French concession et worked with the three major figures of this agency: colonel Fabre, Robert Jobez and Roland Sarly. Starting 197, the police forces systematically recruited Tonkinese in their units, frequently former soldiers and militia of North Vietnam. I found their traces in the colonial, diplomatic and military archives but I am looking for individual trajectories and all types of documents: letters, photos, newspapers, testimonies, etcÖ
Tonkinese of the French police in Shanghai have been the backbone of policing; well appreciated, however forgotten in this history. Through this work, I also want to honor them. I am looking for families whose grandfather was in this Shanghainese adventure, as some have spent 20 years in China with spouse and children enrolled in the Franco-Annamite school opened in 1917. Private archives undoubtedly exist, perhaps in Vietnam.
Being the last to be repatriated in Indochina, I do not know what are their afterward journey: have they gone to Saigon? Did they emigrate?
I apologize in advance for this lengthy message and will be happy to talk to you about this topic. Thank you in advance for your attention to my request. ( Christine Cornet, IAO deputy director, Lyon)
515. I thank you for updating the webpage of my father, Colonel Nguyen Kim Bao. When Saigon collapsed in April 1975, I was only eight years old and therefore did not know about the truth about the assassination of General Nguyen Van Hieu. Upon reading your website about this truth and about General Hieuís military career, I admire him for being a competent, virtuous, humble and honest general. He looked really handsome and majestic when he was young in the pictures. I also appreciate your efforts in building this elaborate website to commemorate and honor General Nguyen Van Hieu. You have moreover taken a further step in establishing a list of former ARVN generals and another one of former colonels. I sincerely commend you for this gallant gesture. (Minh Nhat)
516. I agree with you that re: Pleime campaign, everybody - Colonel Hal Moore, Joe Galloway, General Kinnard, military historians and scholars - are military illiterate. And thank you for exposing the truth about Pleime! (James Michener)
517. I haven't read everything however, generalhieu.com has been very informative, especially a lot of details have been added since when I first saw the site prob about 10yrs ago. Your heartfelt writings re. your brother and dedication to this site are very admirable and highly commended. (Huong Can Nguyen)
518. Just wanted to say that I enjoy going through your webpage on the history of your brother. I found that you have references to the NVA on specific battles. I am in need of NVA references that you cite in English on the battles in the Ia Drang in '65, namely PRE-LZ Xray/Albany. Is there a place I can read these in English from the NVA perspective? (Dan Reed, History Teacher, Oberlin, Ohio)
519. I noticed on your website that you mention Col. Le Ngoc Day in the list of former ARVN colonels on General Hieuís webpage. I have some photographs taken of Le Ngoc Day while he was a Lieutenant Colonel commanding the 33rd Regiment, 21st Division ARVN. These images date to 1966-1967. (Glen Beckwith)
520. Dear Sir, last year I wrote to you a note and got your reply, but my father did not allow me to respond to you, as I explained to you in my email. My father always reminded me the words having the similar meaning that General Hieu advised Major Thuong that although we were aware that in our army there were bad behaviors but because of the prestige of the common cause, we should not dwelve into them further, in order to prevent the enemy to use them to dishonor the ARVN.
My father passed away a month ago. Before he closed his eyes, he still mentioned that in his military career, he only respected four commanders, namely General Thang, General Thinh (artillery), General Hieu and General Truong. To him these were general officers who were well educated and virtuous ...
I am sure you wonder who is my father; allow me to introduce him:
He is Colonel Nguyen Van Tran, 22nd Infantry Division Chief of Staff, who was 22nd Infantry Division Artillery Commander under General Hieu. General Hieu recommended my father to attend the USA Command and General Staff College; after graduation, my father returned to the 22nd ID as Chief of Staff, replacing Colonel Ly.
The similarity between General Hieu and my father is that both were maltreated and harmed by incompetent superior officers. It was fortunate that my father was not promoted to general; otherwise, he would suffered the same consequences, because they all originated from Confucianism families that honor honesty and value three words: Nation - Dignity - Responsibility. (ThanhVu203)
521. Here is a film that I did with my Military History class I teach.
We interviewed over 20 vets involved in the battle of LZ Albany and recreated their memories here. Please watch it at the above link. I was reading "The Fog of War" article you did and it mentioned that the troopers of the 2/7 "Having seen the hundreds of NVA bodies rotting in the sun around the perimeter and after the quiet night at LZ X-Ray, the troops assumed the NVA was finished. Nearly 2,000 NVA soldiers, almost an entire regiment, had been reported killed. After adding the number wounded, there should have been nothing left of the two NVA regiments. The march to LZ Albany would be just a walk in the sun." If you watch in the film at the beginning it shows what the vets told me. One patrol had went out that early morning before they left xray and realized that many of the bodies they had seen lying around the day before had been removed. Meaning to them that a big force of ALIVE enemy had carried off the dead. Some men felt that it was a walk in the sun while others felt there was something big out there waiting for them. Thanks again for the help. (Dan Reed, History Teacher, Oberlin, Ohio)
522. First thank you for your website! I'm interested in the conflict in Vietnam for years and did research on the Chinese involvement for years as well. While in China I was able to obtain the report by the Chinese observers of the Iadrang battle too. If you're interested I can send you a copy of the map of how these observers viewed the crucial ambush. From a Chinese perspective it was of importance where and how to defeat the US army. Therefore the observers were mostly interested in reporting and analyzing battles where the NVA would succeed. (James Trevor)
523. You're really fast, definitely not an academic or social scientist. It has nothing to do with your work or the quality of your research. It is the amazing speed that impressed me. I know several people of the China studies department at Columbia University for more than 20 years. To publish a 10 page article may take 2 to 3 years and a book around 4 years. Even a book review is published usually a year or more later. Thatís "academic" and also why I think if you can write and publish within hours itís not the way itís done in most academic institutions. Sometimes itís better to not be part of the system.
Regarding Iadrang: I know of two sources published in China from eyewitnesses:
That's a reason why I prefer to call them observers and not advisors. Battlefield researcher would be another option. Many battles in Vietnam from 1965 to 1971 were researched and documented in a similar way. (James Trevor)
524. I am very glad you're providing a site to pay tribute to all ARVN officers. It is a shame my Vietnamese friends (and former Vietnamese friends) who are in my age group do not realize the sacrifices that QLVNCH members and their families have made and their invaluable contributions to the motherland. It is also a pity a lot of people do not have a clue as to what really went on in VN and they really do not care. QLVNCH4ever!!!! (H.C. Nguyen)
525. Dear Sir, I am quite surprise and touched upon seeing the photos of my dad and my family taken more than 45 years ago. All the photo albums and papers of my family have been lost during the exodus out of Pleiku on 3/16/1975; my family also was separated from my dad on that tragic exodus day. It was not until 1979 that we found out that he was still alive and was imprisoned at Yen Bai. It was not until 1990 that my dad was released. He told us that while the fleeing column was under mortar fire at the valley Hong, and the vehicles were stuck, my dad had to walked along the jungle edges and upon reaching Phu Bon he found out his army had abandoned Phu Bon. He was all alone at that time and was wound on the knee and was captured at Phu Bon; a week later he was moved out of there. The story of my dad being captured and refusing to take off his uniform is to lenghty to recount in detail in this email.
On behalf of all my sisters and brothers in my family, I thank you very much for the two photos that you have sent to me. This is invaluable memories still left after the lost of the country. I am the boy Vu Thanh seating on the left side of the photo.
Would you please let me know the source of those two photos so that I can retaken more clearly, or if you can scan them directly for more clarity. We do not have any family photos left prior to 1975, besides those two that I just sent to me. I cannot not describe my emotions upon receiving those two invaluable photos and am very appreciative of you for spending time to research and to send them to me. (Nguyen Vu Thanh)
526. Dear Sir, once more I am really touched because of your prompt response. Please forgive my delay in answering you because I had to go to work and only opened the email today.
I and my siblings had settled in the United States a little more than a year ago, and since 1975 until now our family finally was able to reunite in full; however our mother had passed away 2 years prior to that, and I was able to be close to my dad more than 6 months before he also passed away... In his final months, I was the one always staying by him, and he was able to recount a lot about his military career. Two days before he closed his eyes, he mentioned again the three names of the three Commanding Generals that he valued; they are General Thang, General Thinh and General Hieu.
There is a lot of things I want to share with you but I am unable to do so within an email and the limited time. I want to say only briefly the essential issue that is in the last months of my dad, I am the one who, every night after coming home from work, read to him all your writings about General Hieu in the webpage generalhieu.com. My dad always said that all your writings are very laborious and your endeavors benefit not only General Hieu but also the entire ARVN. Your writings are invaluable in term of history that we, the younger generation can used to impart to our children the real situation of the country of South Vietnam prior to the invasion of the Viet Cong.
Personally, I am at awe while reading your writings and I know that you have spent a lot of energy in realizing such an enterprise. I also thank you for sending my the two priceless photos of my dad and my family taken before 1975. I did not think that you pay attention to the unknown younger general like me and reserve such invaluable gifts to us. (Nguyen Vu Thanh)
527. I am a reader of your website and am very touched by the information and photos you have collected and posted on the internet, allowing to our post 1975 young generation to gain knowledge of the histories and photos of the heroes of ARVN in the war between the Free Democracy and the International Communism of the 1954-75 period. I have found a photo of Colonel Tuan when he was LTC Chief of Phan Thiet Province in 1968 Tet Offensive. Prior to that time he was Chief of Vinh Long Province. When he was assigned to the Joint General Staff, he was promoted to Colonel and he passed away in the Nam Ham prison in 1983. (Mai Phu Hung)
528. Hello! My name is Dorothy Eubanks and I read your interview with General Le Minh Dao. My father worked with him in Vietnam as part of the 18th MACV; 18th Vietnamese Division, Xuan Loc and Tay NInh, from 1969-1971. My father has prostate cancer and I'm trying desperately to contact him on behalf of my father. My dad was very close to him and one of his officers, Dai Uy ( Captain ) Nguyen Van Bon, and would like to know how they are doing. Do you know of any way to reach Le Minh Dao? I want to do this for my father as his last wish. Thank you very much for any help you can offer. (Dorothy Eubanks )
529. In reading Readers' Comments #528 of Dorothy Eubanks with a request, I am very touched by the bond of "brothers-in-arms existing in each of every person! (Tom Nguyen)
530. I very much appreciate receiving this priceless photo! This is a picture of LTC Bui Dzinh taken with his allied classmates at the United States Army Command and General Staff College_Fort Leavenworth_Kansas _USA class of 1959_1960.(This picture along with my dad's album were destroyed during the cultural revolution campaign in Saigon after April 30, 1975).
I admire your elaborated photo hunting and document research. I take this opportunity to pass on to you a request of Miss AgnŤs-Tuyền who is the daughter of Major Nguyễn đức XŪch (former Mayor of Gia Dinh under President Ngo Dinh Diem's regime). She currently resides with her family in Sydney, Australia. She asked me if it is possible to find a photo of her father dressed in military uniform that you have found and send it to her. As you might know Major Nguyen Duc Xich was my dad's classmates at the CGS School, along with Colonel Tran Thien Khiem and Major General Ho Van To.
Miss AgnŤs Tuyền's wish is to see a picture of her father in military uniform of an ARVN officer because the family had lost everthing in their exodus to Australia except their lives! Please help her and Mrs. Xich in fulfilling their wishes! You can read about Major Nguyen Duc Xich, the "indomitable prisoner" at http://www.tinparis.net/quochan/qh_2008_04_26_TrungTaNguyenDucXich_TMHoa.html. (Dzung Bui)
531. I and the entire family thank you for sending us the picture of my father dressed in military uniform that all of us dreamed of obtaining for so long. This is a priceless gift that we know you have spent a lot of energy in order to get it. (Agnès TuyÍ̀n)
532. I have read a lot of articles about General Nguyen Van Hieu in the website of General Hieu for all these years and looked to read it in Google. Yesterday, Dec. 28, 2014, I inadvertently read Những kẻ bất khuất (TruyenViet.com ), http://truyenviet.com/?id=1136&start=9, by some author that I don't know. In it it was mentioned that General Hieu was promoted as the new commander of the Highlands during General Du Quoc Dong was III Corps Commander. I hope you would do some research on that period. (Richard Hieu Tran)
533. I have read your website. Recently I saw that you mentioned about the assassin who killed General Hieu. In the article, Shroud over General Hieu's Mysterious Death Unveiled, you said "American military intelligence. Classified. Revealed on May 06, 2015." which means that there is evidence. But in your telephone conversation with Do Duc you said "My brother let me know through "psychic pen" that you were the one who shot him" which means that there is no evidence. Please explain and state the reason which allows you to find the assassin: intelligence information or psychic pen. Thank you. (Kayla Luong)
534. I emailed you last year about some things about ALBANY. I also did the film on LZ ALBANY based on veteran recollections (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gpbOPdtXFz8 A Walk in the Sun). I am currently writing my MA paper on the Pleiku Campaign and have used your sources as references and you have been cited. I would like to use with your permission, two maps, the captured map of ALBANY and the LONG REACH map found in WHY PLEIME? Thanks (Dan Reed)
535. I received a copy of the book. I was unaware that it had been published until recently. Outstanding job and a tribute. I also took note that you included my statement in the book and that of Jim Schrader from the 174th Assault Helicopter Company which was also based at Lane AAF, Bhin Dhin Prov. with my unit the 161st Avn. Co. The 174th was located on the same base on side of the hill. The 161st Avn Company has its own website which may be of interest to you with many photographs and the 174th AHC has its own website as well. Michael Thomas, Major Ret, former CO of the 161Avn Co, may have passed on as I have been unable to contact him for some time. I am sure he would have appreciated reading the book as would others who had served in the unit. Colonel Dave Stanley, the former XO who is still alive has a keen interest in military history will surely be interested in readying it as well. The 161st and 174th does have a reunion every year, both units provided a lot of combat air support to the 22nd Inf. Div ARVN as I am sure you are keenly aware of. You also mention General Sang who was also well known to the men of our unit, did he survive war.
Again, you did an excellent job and the book contributes significantly to the factual history of the conflict in Vietnam as well as tribute and honor of the life and service of General Hieu. I believe that Gen. Sang had a house in Qui Nhon as well.
I often think about the many Vietnamese civilians, women and children who worked in our compound. Most were from Qui Nhon and had been affiliated with the CatholicChurch in Qui Nhon and they were trucked to the compound each day under our protection, Many were the wives and family members of deceased soldiers from the 22nd AVN Div. Hopefully many survived the war as we willingly gave them loyalty letters when we began to rotate back to the U.S., in the event that the war took a tragic turn requiring them to leave the country. Over the years many of us have stood alongside the Vietnamese community in the U.S. at the UN. They come from all over the U.S. as do many former South Vietnamese soldiers.
The South Vietnamese troops in the 22nd Division and their family were brave, the fought the communists and in some units family members, women and children witnessed by me personally traveling Route 1 or Hwy 19. Women often passed the Ammo to fire Cannons that frequently defended Bhin Dhin Prov. I recall a Vietnamese women officer in command of a small Ranger type unit with an American advisor in 1965-66. Rarely do most Americans equate the fact that some 27 nations were part of the Allied Force in Vietnam. Nor do they equate the fact the ARVN solders and their families fought bravely and exhibited a high degree of professionalism. Thus, your book contributes significantly to the memory of the men who were leaders, fought and died during the conflict period. With sincere regards, (Jason A. Kaatz)
536. Today - 24 October 2015 - I was surfing the internet to learn about the Vietnam war and found this site. The fifth colonel officer in the photo #20 in http://www.generalhieu.com/dt_khongten.htm is Colonel, Commander of the 40th Combat Engineer Unit. He is my father. He remained in Vietnam after a 22 year imprisonment in the re-education camp. He died in Viet Nam in 1996. Thank you for spending time in looking for photos of Vietnamese veterans. A sad and painful past. (Trịnh ViỊ́́t Thu)
537. I have read about General Hieu on the internet. I have an uncle serving at the 22nd company headquarters apo 3904; he was missing in action in Kontum 1972-1973. His name is Nguyen Van Thong, lieutenant medic, orgininated from Bong Son, Binh Dinh. I aske you that when you get the chance to meet with any officers or have any information about this company to help me. Thank you. (Duyen Ha, email@example.com) 538. I have a suggestion for your website... Can you kindly add more articles dealing with General Hieu's tactics and strategy for us to read? So that these tactics and strategy can be stored in history for the young generaltion. Thanks so much for the site. (Anthony HiÍ́u Đào)
539. I have contacted the center of military archives in Ivry, France; they only have in general photographic materiel of French units, and, unfortunately, very little concerning the Vietnamese units; and yet, it is a quite an interesting history, as evidenced by the particularly remarkable and military accomplishment studded career of your brother. (Gilles Chautard) 540. Dear Tín,
I came to your website and also want add a few details about my father. In the list of Colonels, you mention him at
551 Nguyễn Tu‚́n Chỉ Huy Trưởng Trường ThiÍ́t Giáp (04/1968-02/1969)
Because he refused to surrender, the communists killed him and his entire family in the Tet Mau Than 1968 event (I was the only survivor). In Thép và Máu of Hà Mai ViỊ́t, it was noted that he was Commander of the Armor School from 4/1965 - 2/1968. I also recall as such because I moved with my family from Quang Tri to Saigon around that year.
In many documents, foreign as well as Vietnamese, the incident in which General Loan shot Bay Lem, was more or less related to the massacre of my family. My family knew General Loan's family. After the massacre, I went to live with General Loan's wife family in order to avoid rocket shellings as the battle of Mau Than was carried on. I was told that General Loan was my father's classmate of Class 1 Thu Duc School.
Furthermore, he also attended the CGS College in Fort Leavenworth, KS in the class of 66-1.
145 66-1 Tuan Nguyen Khac Cung LTC Armor Assoc
At that time, as I interpret it, because he does not have a middle name, when asked he wrote down Khong Co and was misunderstood to be Khac Cung. (Hu‚́n)
541. I wish that one day Justice will shed its light on the Crime that occurred on the approach of the lost of Viet Nam of Major General Hiếu.
I wish you maintain confidence and conviction in the search of the truth, despite its become harder by the days. Should the pillar of South Viet Nam suffers such adversity? (Van Doan)
542. I am the grand child of Colonel Đinh Sơn Thung . Seeing that your website makes mention of my grand father I wish to advise the adminthat if he needs documents and photos of him I can provide some that have been kept by the family to enrich the website. Thank you for mentionning my grand father. (Dinh Trinh)
Section 1: 001 - 050
Section 1: 001 - 050